• Cradle to cradle


    A phrase invented by Walter R. Stahel in the 1970s and popularised by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in their 2002 book.  This framework seeks to create production techniques that are not just efficient but are essentially waste free. In cradle to cradle production all material inputs and outputs are seen either as technical or biological nutrients. Technical nutrients can be recycled or reused with no loss of quality and biological nutrients composted or consumed.


  • Landfill


    Landfill is a place to dispose of refuse and other waste material by burying it and covering it over with soil, especially as a method of filling in or extending usable land.