• Conjoined


    This is an upcycled technique developed by the researchers Jennifer Whitty and Holly McQuillan at Space Between which is employed in the Fundamentals range. This method eliminates the need for cutting as it joins two or more garments together. This method is zero waste as no waste is created.

  • Cradle to cradle


    A phrase invented by Walter R. Stahel in the 1970s and popularised by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in their 2002 book.  This framework seeks to create production techniques that are not just efficient but are essentially waste free. In cradle to cradle production all material inputs and outputs are seen either as technical or biological nutrients. Technical nutrients can be recycled or reused with no loss of quality and biological nutrients composted or consumed.

  • Cradle to grave


    Cradle to grave refers to a company taking responsibility for the disposal of goods it has produced, but not necessarily putting products’ constituent components back into service.


  • Dead stock


    Dead stock is the residual fabric which accounts for the majority of waste in the production process consisting of left over fabric, canceled orders, textiles bought or dyed in colours that are no longer desirable. Branded and exclusive textiles are incinerated, while others are sold to a middleman as a means of generating cash flow, and creating storage space. The designer Christopher Raeburn specialises in sourcing military and direct from mill, dead stock fabric.

  • Design Activism


    The field of activism is broad but essentially all activists are involved in ‘taking actions to catalyse, encourage or bring about change, in order to elicit social, cultural and /or political transformations’ (Fuad-Luke 2009,6). According to The Design Activism strategy developed by The Textile Toolbox (2015) the designer becomes a ‘social innovator’ when they work with society at large.

  • Downcycling


    Downcycling is the reuse of materials in such a manner that the end use is of less value than the original use. For example, damaged textiles being used for chair stuffing.


  • Eco system


    A dynamic and interdependent living community of people, parts, or mechanisms that interact with one another. The term was coined by Arthur Tansley, a British Ecologist, who said that ecosystems have the capacity to respond to change without altering the basic characteristics of the system. A business can be viewed as an ecosystem, as can a market, industry, or economy.


  • Landfill


    Landfill is a place to dispose of refuse and other waste material by burying it and covering it over with soil, especially as a method of filling in or extending usable land.

  • Lean manufacturing


    Lean manufacturing is a systemic method for the elimination of waste be they materials or human efforts within a manufacturing process. 

  • Liability stock


    Liability stock is the extra fabric that manufacturers order as a contingency plan in case there are issues with the collection. It lies in warehouses all over the world. After being produced, finished and dyed and printed (all energy-intensive techniques) it is usually deemed obsolete, shipped to the US or China to be shredded and used in car seating 

  • Life cycle analysis


    Life cycle analysis (LCA, also known as ecobalance, and cradle to grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a garments life from cradle to grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). 

  • Lifecycle


    Lifecycle is the consecutive and interlinked stages of a product or service system, from the extraction of natural resources to the final disposal.


  • Mass production


    Mass production is the method of producing goods in large quantities at low cost per unit which are standardised by means of precision-manufactured, interchangeable parts. The process itself is characterised by mechanisation to achieve high volume, elaborate organisation of materials flow through various stages of manufacturing, careful supervision of quality standards, and minute division of labour. 


  • Pieced


    This is an upcycled technique developed by the researchers Jennifer Whitty and Holly McQuillan at Space Between which is employed in the Fundamentals range. This method is more similar to conventional garment construction methods as it uses patterns which are cut from 'end of life garments'. This method can take a sustainable amount of time at the cutting stage.  This method is dependant on offcuts or garment types available, end of roll, fabric surplus to requirements etc. It is way of using stained and damaged garments.

  • Post consumer waste


    Post-consumer waste in a clothing and textile context is clothing or textiles that have been used and discarded which may then be used for recycling or up cycling.

  • Pre-consumer waste


    Pre-consumer waste is the waste created during the production of garments. This can include manufacturing scrap such as offcuts, misprints, damaged finished garments etcetera. According to Rissanen (2012) 'on average, clothes that are created by cutting and sewing fabric use approximately 85 per cent of the fabric produced to make them, meaning that 15 per cent of it is wasted.'


  • Recycling


    Recycling is the reuse, or repurposing of materials, it can be used as a catch-all phrase that encompasses upcycling and downcycling approaches. 


  • Social enterprise


    Social enterprises are businesses that trade to tackle social problems, improve communities, people’s life chances, or the environment.( The characteristics of a social enterprise are the following: 
    Have a clear social and/or environmental mission set out in their governing documents 
    Generate the majority of their income through trade 
    Reinvest the majority of their profits 
    Be autonomous of state 
    Be majority controlled in the interests of the social mission 
    Be accountable and transparent
  • Spliced


    This is an upcycled technique developed by the researchers Jennifer Whitty and Holly McQuillan at Space Between which is employed in the Fundamentals range. Within this minimal waste method garments are cut and joined. It fuses two or more garments together to create a hybrid garment.

  • Supply chain


    supply chain is a system of organisations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer


  • Third space


    Third space refers to a vision for universities which expands the campus boundaries as they work with different sectors of our society―academic, corporate, non-profit, governmental, cultural, and community to forge outward-looking connections and to co-produce knowledge and innovation. According to Nancy Cantor (2010, p4) 'one might imagine it as a two-way street for teaching, learning, and discovery.'

  • Triple Bottom Line


    Triple Bottom Line is the social, environmental and financial performance of an organisation which ties the social and environmental impact of an organisation’s activities to its economic performance. The phrase was coined by John Elkington, co-founder of the business consultancy SustainAbility, in his 1998 book Cannibals with Forks: the Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business.



  • Upcycling


    Upcycling is the repurposing and reuse of materials through redesign and labour that results in the end product being of higher value than the materials used to create it. The Space Between Fundamentals rang is an example of this approach where disposed, post -consumer corporate uniform waste was reused to create fashion finished garments. Upcycled garments have minimal environmental impact. According to Reet Aus (2013) the manufacture of an upcycled collection can use '70% less water and 64% less energy per garment and produced at least 40% less production waste.'